MySQL中一些优化straight_join技巧

Mysql 230 2017-09-17 08:41

在oracle中可以指定的表连接的hint有很多:ordered hint 指示oracle按照from关键字后的表顺序来进行连接;leading hint 指示查询优化器使用指定的表作为连接的首表,即驱动表;use_nl hint指示查询优化器使用nested loops方式连接指定表和其他行源,并且将强制指定表作为inner表。
在mysql中就有之对应的straight_join,由于mysql只支持nested loops的连接方式,所以这里的straight_join类似oracle中的use_nl hint。mysql优化器在处理多表的关联的时候,很有可能会选择错误的驱动表进行关联,导致了关联次数的增加,从而使得sql语句执行变得非常的缓慢,这个时候需要有经验的DBA进行判断,选择正确的驱动表,这个时候straight_join就起了作用了,下面我们来看一看使用straight_join进行优化的案例:

1.用户实例:spxxxxxx的一条sql执行非常的缓慢,sql如下:

73871 | root      | 127.0.0.1:49665   | user_app_test  | Query    |   500 | Sorting result      |
SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM test_log a,USER b
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime)

2.查看执行计划:

mysql> explain SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM test_log a,USER b
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime);
mysql> explain SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
-> FROM test_log a,USER b
-> WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
-> GROUP BY DATE(practicetime)\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: a
type: ALL
possible_keys: ix_test_log_userid
key: NULL
key_len: NULL
ref: NULL
rows: 416782
Extra: Using filesort
*************************** 2. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: b
type: eq_ref
possible_keys: PRIMARY
key: PRIMARY
key_len: 96
ref: user_app_testnew.a.userid
rows: 1
Extra: Using where
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

3.查看索引:

mysql> show index from test_log;
+――――�C+――――+――――――――-+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-++
| Table    | Non_unique | Key_name        | Seq_in_index | Column_name | Collation | Cardinality | Sub_part | Packed | Null | Index_type | Comment |
+――――�C+――――+――――――――-+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-++
| test_log |     0 | ix_test_log_unique_ |      1 | unitid   | A     |     20 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     0 | ix_test_log_unique_ |      2 | paperid   | A     |     20 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     0 | ix_test_log_unique_ |      3 | qtid    | A     |     20 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     0 | ix_test_log_unique_ |      4 | userid   | A     |   400670 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     0 | ix_test_log_unique_ |      5 | serial   | A     |   400670 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     1 | ix_test_log_unit  |      1 | unitid   | A     |     519 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     1 | ix_test_log_unit  |      2 | paperid   | A     |    2023 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     1 | ix_test_log_unit  |      3 | qtid    | A     |    16694 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     1 | ix_test_log_serial |      1 | serial   | A     |   133556 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| test_log |     1 | ix_test_log_userid |      1 | userid   | A     |    5892 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
+――――�C+――――+――――――――-+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-+――�C+――+――-+

4.调整索引,A表优化采用覆盖索引:

mysql>alter table test_log drop index ix_test_log_userid,add index ix_test_log_userid(userid,practicetime)

5.查看执行计划:

mysql> explain SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM test_log a,USER b
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime)\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: a
type: index
possible_keys: ix_test_log_userid
key: ix_test_log_userid
key_len: 105
ref: NULL
rows: 388451
Extra: Using index; Using filesort
*************************** 2. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: b
type: eq_ref
possible_keys: PRIMARY
key: PRIMARY
key_len: 96
ref: user_app_test.a.userid
rows: 1
Extra: Using where
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

调整后执行稍有效果,但是还不明显,还没有找到要害:

SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM test_log a,USER b
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime);
……………….
143 rows in set (1 min 12.62 sec)

6.执行时间仍然需要很长,时间的消耗主要耗费在Using filesort中,参与排序的数据量有38W之多,所以需要转换驱动表;尝试采用user表做驱动表:使用straight_join强制连接顺序:

mysql> explain SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM USER b straight_join test_log a
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime)\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: b
type: ALL
possible_keys: PRIMARY
key: NULL
key_len: NULL
ref: NULL
rows: 42806
Extra: Using where; Using temporary; Using filesort
*************************** 2. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: a
type: ref
possible_keys: ix_test_log_userid
key: ix_test_log_userid
key_len: 96
ref: user_app_test.b.userid
rows: 38
Extra: Using index
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

执行时间已经有了质的变化,降低到了2.56秒;

mysql>SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM USER b straight_join test_log a
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime);
……..
143 rows in set (2.56 sec)

7.在分析执行计划的第一步:Using where; Using temporary; Using filesort,user表其实也可以采用覆盖索引来避免using where的出现,所以继续调整索引:

mysql> show index from user;
+――-+――――+――――――+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-+――�C+――+――――+―――+
| Table | Non_unique | Key_name     | Seq_in_index | Column_name | Collation | Cardinality | Sub_part | Packed | Null | Index_type | Comment |
+――-+――――+――――――+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-+――�C+――+――――+―――+
| user |     0 | PRIMARY     |      1 | userid   | A     |    43412 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| user |     0 | ix_user_email  |      1 | email    | A     |    43412 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
| user |     1 | ix_user_username |      1 | username  | A     |     202 |   NULL | NULL  |   | BTREE   |     |
+――-+――――+――――――+――――�C+――――-+―――�C+――――-+―――-+――�C+――+――――+―――+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql>alter table user drop index ix_user_username,add index ix_user_username(username,isfree);
Query OK, 42722 rows affected (0.73 sec)
Records: 42722 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

mysql>explain SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM USER b straight_join test_log a
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime);
*************************** 1. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: b
type: index
possible_keys: PRIMARY
key: ix_user_username
key_len: 125
ref: NULL
rows: 42466
Extra: Using where; Using index; Using temporary; Using filesort
*************************** 2. row ***************************
id: 1
select_type: SIMPLE
table: a
type: ref
possible_keys: ix_test_log_userid
key: ix_test_log_userid
key_len: 96
ref: user_app_test.b.userid
rows: 38
Extra: Using index
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

8.执行时间降低到了1.43秒:

mysql>SELECT DATE(practicetime) date_time,COUNT(DISTINCT a.userid) people_rows
FROM USER b straight_join test_log a
WHERE a.userid=b.userid AND b.isfree=0 AND LENGTH(b.username)>4
GROUP BY DATE(practicetime);
。。。。。。。
143 rows in set (1.43 sec)

文章评论